風力發電/Wind Energy


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Wind energy
The consulting team Thermofluiddynamik offers its services (like consulting, expertise, calculation) in the field of wind energy in the areas of 

  • certification of wind turbines,
  • turbulent wind loads of wind turbines in wind farms,
  • determination of environmental impacts of turbines (like blade failure, flying lumps of ice) and

calculation of specific wind profiles in front and in the wake of wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) programs.

 

Certification of wind turbines
For the erecting of wind turbines a certification is necessary. The most important topic during the certification process is the checking of the design documentation. That means the checking

  • of the operation and safety concept,
  • of the load assumptions and load calculations,
  • of each wind turbine component with respect to the previously checked load assumptions and
  • of the safety systems and the manuals.

The consulting team Thermofluiddynamik offers its services in the topics

  • checking of load assumptions and load calculations,
  • checking of operation and safety concept and
  • checking of manuals and safety systems.

Thereby the checking of the load assumptions and calculations is made by a comparison with own calculations - using commercial and own developed simulation software and taking into account the common guidelines as

  • DIBt guideline (type approval in Germany),
  • GL guideline,
  • IEC-61400 guideline,
  • NVN guideline.
  • BEWA/MCS
  • AWEA/SWCC

Using the definitions for different wind velocities, the (from the guidelines) required wind fields and operation conditions are combined to calculate extreme and fatigue load assumptions.

 

Turbulent loads and stability of wind turbine in windfarms
The wind conditions inside a wind farm are characterized by the impact of wake effects on downstream wind turbines. This gives rise to an effective turbulence intensity of every wind turbine within the wind farm. The effective turbulence intensity is influenced by the ambient turbulence intensity and the turbulence intensity inside the wake.

According to IEC rules the effective turbulence intensity must not exceed the design turbulence intensity at every wind speed. The IEC rules provide an approximate method to predict the effective turbulence intensities.

Based on this method we are able to calculate the specific values of the effective turbulence intensities based on site specific data. The method accounts for each wind turbine type, hub height, surface roughness and frequency distribution of wind direction. Not only for certification reasons but also during windfarm planning we can help you optimize your layout.

References: more than 200 windfarm projects worldwide.

Impact of wind turbines on the environment/ Rotor blade failure
The tip wind speed of a rotor blade is as high as 80m/s (180mph). Bearing in mind the weight of several tons of a single blade the kinetic energy of a modern multi-MegaWatt wind turbine is a possible hazard to the environment.

Although the probability of blade failure is relatively low, it might be significant in cases where freeways or certain industrial areas are close to the wind turbine. The trajectories of blade fragments are calculated taking into account the site and wind turbine type specific data. Several ten thousands of trajectories are calculated to quantify the probability of an impact on a certain location. These probabilities are the basis for a risk analysis.

Blade icing
At temperatures below and around zero degrees Celcius blade icing might occur. Falling pieces of ice are a hazard to persons in the vicinity of a wind turbine. To quantify the probability of a person being hit by an ice piece the trajectories of several ten thousand ice pieces are calculated.

Reference: Risk analysis of a wind farm located at an altitude of 1400m above sea level.

CFD-analysis of wind condition around wind turbines
Site specific wind conditions are influenced by steep slopes, cliffs or high structures close to the wind turbines. Despite the losses in energy yield local accellerations of wind speed, wind gradients and inclination of wind may reach a dangerous level in these cases. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Software is used to predict the 3-dimensional wind velocity field.

Specific wind conditions in the wake of wind turbines are another subject of CFD-analysis

 

您的在地化客製服務 :

  •  風機、主要安全部件的設計及製造評估
  •  安全結構和運行狀態
  •  葉片、材料、塔架的認證監造
  •  安全和控制系統檢驗
  •  風場的開發潛力評估、現場測風及商業風險評估 
  • 風電設備及風電場週期檢驗
  • 英國BEWA/MCS以及美國AWEA/SWCC驗證及評估

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